A quick review of events before 1991 which is our starting point.
NOTE. Anything you see in this style is a direct quote from someone or a resource; it is not mine.
CERN in 1954
A Physics Laboratory founded in 1954 by 12 countries for researching about physics. It is in Europe.
The main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area network hub. CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
One of its scientists was a man named Tim Berners-Lee. He had a large impact on the web and CERN is where the ideas began.
In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee, an English independent contractor at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland, built ENQUIRE, as a personal database of people and software models, but also as a way to play with hypertext; each new page of information in ENQUIRE had to be linked to a page.
Internet in 1968
Okay. Lets to to the United States of America where the idea of the Internet began.
The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks
Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran, and packet-switched networks such as the NPL network by Donald Davies, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, and Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks
So by 1970s we have network of networks in which computers can connect one to another.
Unix in 1970
An Operating System that all of us know it. First made for programming to develop software and later on - gradually - featured by time-sharing and being multi-user Operating System.
At first it was a single-task and has been written in assembly language. In 1973 it was rewritten in C.
Although the Unix was new and better than previous OSs, it was not open for everyone (= publicly) and only some universities and companies had access to the code.
C Language in 1972
C was originally developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 to make utilities running on Unix. Later, it was applied to re-implementing the kernel of the Unix operating system.
Microsoft in 1975
Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975
Prototype EENQUIR in 1980
Berners-Lee worked as an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980. While in Geneva, he proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. To demonstrate it, he built a prototype system named ENQUIRE.
ENQUIRE was a software project written in 1980 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, which was the predecessor to the World Wide Web. It was a simple hypertext program that had some of the same ideas as the Web and the Semantic Web but was different in several important ways.
DNS (BIND) 1984
We know what is Domain Name System. It is a system with which we can map domain names to IP addresses.
The first idea began with Elizabeth J. Feinler at SRI (= Stanford Research Institute)
Using a simpler, more memorable name in place of a host's numerical address dates back to the ARPANET era. The Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) maintained a text file named HOSTS.TXT that mapped host names to the numerical addresses of computers on the ARPANET. Elizabeth Feinler developed and maintained the first ARPANET directory
In 1984, four UC Berkeley students, Douglas Terry, Mark Painter, David Riggle, and Songnian Zhou, wrote the first Unix name server implementation for the Berkeley Internet Name Domain, commonly referred to as BIND
This bind is the command that now we use to configure our servers.
World Wide Web in 1989
Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System (upon which the Uniform Resource Locator is built) came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to openly discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers.
In 1989, CERN was the largest internet node in Europe, and Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the internet:
I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the Transmission Control Protocol and domain name system ideas and—ta-da!—the World Wide Web ...
First browser software 1990
English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and then to the general public in August 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet.
Putting it all to gather
There is a physics laboratory in Switzerland that researches about physics and energy. They have tons of tons of information that somehow has to be organized.
One of the engineers in CERN is Tim Berners-Lee which after a while is frustrated by the inefficiencies of organizing data at CERN. For solving the problem he proposes a information management system that makes it easy for looking for a specific source of information.
He sees this way of organizing data a great of sharing information between other scientists mostly using the Internet. So he writes a web server and a browser software.
The browser could parse streams coming from the web server (a kind of Markup Language - we know it as HTML today) and display the information that has been sent from a server.
This information as a Hypertext (also has links in it) is transmitted using TCP/IP from one computer to another.
Now everything is ready to server the first web page in 1991.
Update: Sat Aug 10 2019 15:08:22 GMT+0430 (Iran Daylight Time)